The End of an Era

By Dylan Frikken and Samantha Pedek – UWRF Physics Undergraduates.

Work has officially begun on disassembling the neutron monitors in the Cosray building at McMurdo. There are Two neutron monitor sets here that need to be packaged up, new enclosures built and eventually shipped off for Jang Bogo, a South Korean station here in

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Antarctica. Each set has six neutron monitors encased in ten tons of lead each and their enclosures. After two days of hard work we have taken one set down and staged it for packaging. Also, we have nearly completed the new enclosure for this set, so we are doing pretty well for time.

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Neutron Monitor
Moving Lead
Moving Lead

Today we a lso prepped for the Cosray open house event. The historic Cosray building is going to be removed from McMurdo after our work here, so the community was given one last chance to come and visit. We spent a good amount of the day cleaning and organizing

Cosray is like a time machine straight back into the old days of scientific research. There are all kinds of vintage equipment and instruments, and it really could be a museum itself. Before computing came onto the scene, analog recording systems and good old fashioned paper ruled the world of science. The data from the detectors used to be recorded on ticker tape, while the pressure, temperature and wind speed were all recorded with devices similar to a seismometer.

Real data from the neutron monitors past.
Real data from the neutron monitors past.

One really interesting product of recording data using a ticker tape is that a massive amount of chad – the holes punched from the ticker tape.

Visitors trying to reach the bottom of many years worth of neutron monitor “data”.
Visitors trying to reach the bottom of many years worth of neutron monitor “data”.

The Cosray open house was really successful. A good chunk of the community came, and Sam and I got to explain how the neutron monitors work and why they are important to science, and we fielded a lot of interesting questions.

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Flight Day: Finally!

By Dylan Frikken – UWRF Physics Undergraduate

Editor’s Note: Dylan, Samantha, and Dr. Madsen made to McMurdo a couple of weeks ago. This is a delayed post on their flight from Christchurch New Zealand to McMurdo Station in Antarctica.

Today is the day – again! We woke up early and made our way to USAP,  at Christchurch’s Airport, for another check-in, this time we all had good feelings about our chances. With check-in complete we received the safety brief video once more and waited on the weather call. All things looked good so we were told to board the LC-130. Some people were moved to different flights, but we were still all clear. After about twenty minutes waiting on the plane we were told the plane needed to top off with fuel, which required us to deplane. So we got off the plane and waited the longest “five minutes” of our lives. After braving the sweltering New Zealand sun in our cold weather gear for what seemed an eternity the crew chief came out to tell us we could reboard. As the engines started the cabin filled with the sound of the roaring engines and all hopes of talking and listening on the flight were lost. After a few hours of nearly melting sitting under the heat duct, Samantha and I were invited up to the flight deck.

View from the cockpit.
View from the cockpit.

Seven and a half hours of mixed sleeping and reading later, we were signaled to prepare for landing. The LC-130 lands with skis on the Pegasus runway on the Ross ice Shelf. After a smooth landing, we began taxiing to our parking spot, the crew chief opened the back cargo door and we were met with a stunning view from the runway.

On the Ice
On the Ice runway.

After a few dozen pictures of our new temporary home, we loaded onto Ivan the Terrabus for a 30 minute ride into “town”.

Ivan the Terror Bus came to get us.
Ivan the Terror Bus came to get us.

We made it to McMurdo Station at last!

Moving Day: Part 1

By Prof. James Madsen –  UWRF Physics

Today was filled with moving all of the heavy components of the first section of the detector outside. Seems simple, right? Not exactly. Our task here is to move last two sections of the neutron monitor out of the Cosray building which is near McMurdo Station. Each section consists of is 6 neutron monitor tubes, approximately 10 tons of lead, a bunch of polyethylene, and a stack of Styrofoam.

Over the past couple of days, we have been staging the lead and packaging up the neutron monitors and the polyethylene for shipping. These neutron monitors will be heading to Jang Bogo Station, the Korean Antarctic station nearby. The tricky part about the process is that the monitors will be in a different geometric configuration, therefore the insulated housing needs to be modified. Instead of having an array of 1 row of 6 tubes, it will be 2 rows of 3 tubes.

Cos Ray Neutron Monitor.
Cos Ray Neutron Monitor.

Today we loaded the first 10 tons of lead. We placed 6 lead rings per pallet (which weighs over 1200 lbs!) by using a ramp, and a lot of force. It was then strapped down and taken out the back door by a fork lift. Lather. Rise. Repeat. Tomorrow a smaller machine specifically used for moving heavy things into shipping containers, called the pickle, will load it all up.

To wrap up the day, we dismantled the second section all the way down to the housing. We will be repeating the entire process from today on Thursday!

Down Time Down Below

By Samantha Pedek – UWRF Physics Undergraduate

We have had a completely full first few days here at McMurdo. We didn’t arrive here until quite late Friday evening, so we had a few briefings and went straight to bed. The first full day was filled with more briefings and trainings. There are a surprising amount of things to do in order to pass free time, and we have all started to get a feel for the community. As a part of our lab tour, we were brought down to the Touch Tank.

Sam with some sea critters.
Sam with some sea critters.

In the beginning of the season, biologists collected a plethora of aquatic creatures that they keep for people to hold and handle. One really amazing quirk about the native animals here is a trait called gigantism. One of the creatures that exhibit this property are sea lice. It is comparable to the traditional sand lice, but instead of being gnat sized, it is roughly the size of my hand. Along with the sea lice, we got to hold a bunch of other neat animals including a sea lemon, a sea urchin, sea spiders and many more.

Dylan and a sea bug.
Dylan and a sea bug.

Another fun thing to do around town is to hike (or ski or bike) on some of the trails that are around. Some of the hikes are relatively short, only a couple of miles; others can be quite long, up to 13 miles. Dylan and I took advantage of the never ending daylight to hike up to the top of Observation Hill (or Ob Hill for short) after dinner on our first full day here. This is one of the many hikes that people are allowed to do either with a pal or solo. Once getting a tiny bit out of town, both of us realized that we completely missed Mt. Erebus, the active volcano, on our way in from the landing strip, which is just north of town. Up there, we both got fantastic views of town and the surrounding geographical features, because it was uncharacteristically clear.

Jungle with a sand flea
Jongil  with a sand flea

On the second full day, we had a lot of time to ourselves to get our individual work done. Around town there was a marathon going on, and after the marathon, contestants were invited to jump into a tank filled with sea water straight from the bay. Dylan and I went down investigated the polar plunge and decided to do it for ourselves. Since it is salt water, the temperature is actually slightly below freezing, and boy was it cold! It was definitely an experience to cross of the bucket list. “Swimming” in Antarctic waters and doing a literal polar plunge!

Travel to McMurdo, Antarctica

by Dylan Frikken and Samantha Pedek –  UWRF Undergraduates

“Day One”

Our 11,000 mile journey from The University of River Falls to McMurdo station, Antarctica,  began on December 30th. The first leg of the journey was a flight from Minneapolis to Los Angeles (4 hours 30 minutes, 1,500 miles). After a four-hour layover in LA, complete with fish tacos, we boarded our flight to Auckland, New Zealand (13 hours 30 minutes, 6,500 miles). This was Dylan’s first time leaving North America so there were a lot of new experiences. We made it through customs and Dylan got the first stamp in his passport! Then we had one last commercial flight to Christchurch, New Zealand (1 hour, 475 miles).

We arrived in Christchurch on January 1st to 80 degrees and the intense southern hemisphere sun. The “Kiwis’” (New Zealanders) take their holidays very seriously, so finding a place to eat was no small task. After arriving at our hotel we explored the city on foot (4 hours, 10 miles round trip according to Sam’s FitBit). We saw the Christchurch botanical garden (which featured many large non-native trees primarily from the northern hemisphere), the Re:START mall (a fully functioning shopping area built from shipping containers), and a whole lot of “closed for the holidays” signs. The city of Christchurch was hit with devastating earthquakes in 2010 and in 2011 and is still in the process of rebuilding from them, but they see it as an opportunity to make a better city that suits everyone.

RESTART Mall
Re:START Mall in Christchurch, made from shipping containers.

Day Two

The plan for day two from USAP was to attend a briefing, do our Extreme Cold Weather fitting, and get our baggage in order for our flight the next day. After everything was in order we hopped on the bus and went to Lyttleton, a small harbor town just south of Christchurch. On the way back, we stopped and rode the Gondola, a chairlift ride to the top of a bluff with great views. Good weather, high spirits and great food made for an enjoyable bonus day in Christchurch (5 hours, 15 miles).

Day three in New Zealand

The big day had finally arrived. We woke up early, had breakfast, and made our way to the USAP   Antarctic center for our flight to McMurdo. Excitement filled the air, as we checked our bags and got our safety briefings, only to be met with a two hour weather delay. Flying to McMurdo is no easy feat, 8 hours on a LC-130 flown by the Air National Guard 09th airwing out of New York. The LC-130 doesn’t carry enough fuel for a return trip if landing isn’t possible so extra caution is necessary. Poor conditions in McMurdo finally lead to our flight being cancelled. The weather wasn’t nearly as nice in Chrstchurch so we went to a pub and played Euchre for most of the day. Turns out this pub has a stone grill, where a 400 degree stone comes to your table and you cook your own food. There we both had a variety of strange meat including ostrich, lamb, and kangaroo (6 hours, 6 miles).

I ordered Elk, ostrich, lamb
I ordered kangaroo, elk, ostrich, lamb

Day Four

We awoke to a message from USAP telling us of a four-hour weather delay, so a nice full breakfast was in order. Upon arriving back to the hotel we were told flights were canceled. Unfortunately the weather was not cooperating in Christchurch, so after many days of traveling, we took a well needed rest day. The weather finally cleared up for dinner, so we ended up meeting friends of Dr. Madsen (who also happen to be IceCube colleagues at the University of Canterbury, in Christchurch) for dinner at a pub that brewed its own beer. Once the sun finally set, we ventured out to do some observing. We tried to find the Southern Cross to no avail. We did find the constellation Orion, but it was completely upside down!

Day Five

Sumner Beach
Sumner Beach

Another day another delay. Off to the famous Drexel’s for an American style breakfast. The good news was another day to explore Christchurch, so we made the best of it. With the weather being much nicer we took a bus to Sumner, a suburb of Christchurch on the beach. We took a nice walk on the beach and sat in a park nestled in a mountain valley (8 hours, 12 miles).

Total travel time to get to McMurdo: 152.5 hours

Total mileage to get to McMurdo: 11,000 miles

A Summer of Astrophysics and Getting Married

Featured Photo:  2016 REUs Mykalin Jones, Megan Davis, Kristine (Skul) Romich, and Lorena Mezini

What a summer it’s been! I’m back in Chicago and about to head into my final semester of community college, after which I’ll be transferring to a four-year institution to complete my bachelor’s degree in physics. I’d like to take a few moments to share some highlights from my ten weeks of neutrino astrophysics internship at UW-River Falls.

First, an introduction. My name is Kristine, and I’m a student at the City Colleges of Chicago (a network of seven community colleges serving residents of Chicago proper). My story is a bit different from most of my colleagues’: although I’ve been fascinated by physics and astronomy for as long as I can remember, it wasn’t until I was in my 20s — with two prior degrees in the liberal arts — that I chose to pursue a career in it.

I graduated from Loyola University Chicago in 2012 with bachelor’s degrees in communication studies and psychology. I also spent a semester in graduate school for applied social psychology. After withdrawing from my graduate program, I worked a string of temp jobs and had a brief stint as an administrative assistant at a corporate office; eventually, I made the decision to go back to school and study physics.

Majoring in the natural sciences gave me a sense of purpose I never got from psychology. (That’s not to say psychology doesn’t have value — it just means it wasn’t for me.) I made a point of getting to know faculty members and asking them what I could do to maximize my chances for success. They all said the same thing: research.

I learned that there are special internships, called Research Experiences for Undergraduates, that allow college students to participate in original research in various STEM disciplines. I found out about the opportunity at UWRF just two weeks before the application deadline. Thanks largely to a fantastic professor who wrote me a recommendation on only a few days’ notice, I managed to
submit my materials on time. Four months later, I arrived in River Falls.

I once asked Suruj why I had been selected. He told me he pulled my name from a hat. For a second I almost believed him.

My project involved using the photon-propagation code CLSim to compare two existing ice models and identify discrepancies between flasher simulations and real data. As one might expect, it required a great deal of computer programming. I worked on a team with two other REU students, Roman and Lorena — both of whom had considerably more programming experience than me. Actually, just about everyone had more programming experience than me. During the Python crash course Suruj gave the first week, I accidentally created two infinite loops.

My lack of familiarity with coding made the first month at UWRF difficult. The only thing I’d ever programmed before was a Raspberry Pi camera, and that was using a script somebody else had
written. My colleagues, meanwhile, were writing original code to perform far more complex operations. More than once, I found myself questioning whether I have what it takes to become an
astrophysicist.

Thankfully Suruj, Dr. Madsen, and Dr. McCann reassured me that my programming skills would improve as the summer progressed. By July, I had gotten a lot better at making computers do what
I wanted them to. I spent the second half of the internship analyzing waveforms — charge- weighted time distributions used to compare the timing of light propagation between simulations
and real data. At one point, I identified an error in an existing code that solved a significant technical issue my team had been having. I also built a wiki page to document our procedure and
results.

When we weren’t working in the lab (or in a coffee shop, as was often the case with me), my fellow REU students and I had a chance to explore River Falls and the rest of the Twin Cities
metropolitan area. We visited the Mall of America, watched fireworks in Stillwater on the Fourth of July, and did science demonstrations for the public at the Northern Wisconsin State Fair. Roman
and I had our cars with us, which helped a lot.

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Fireworks in Stillwater, MN on the Fourth of July.
Demonstrating the Magdeburg sphere at the Northern Wisconsin State Fair.
Demonstrating the Magdeburg sphere at the Northern Wisconsin State Fair.

I couldn’t have asked for a better assortment of colleagues. Despite our differences in age and background (half from community colleges and half from research universities), I’d like to think we got along . . .

I got married during the final week of the internship, and my REU group came to my wedding. (Yes, that’s the right-hand rule).

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Nerd-ing off with the right hand rule at my wedding. REUs Chris Patenaude and Roman Gradford are in the back row, left and right respectively.

Norway

By Jack Nuclkes: UW-Madison Undergraduate who is on an IRES Neutrino Astrophysics Internship in Sweden in Summer 2016.

Four days after returning from Switzerland, we again packed our backpacks and began our trip to Norway.  After our long haul to the Alps, we were all glad that we only had a mere 30 hours on trains planned for the weekend.

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By Friday morning, we reached Bergen, a city on the west coast of Norway.  We then headed back east to Voss (the town that is the namesake for the “artesian” water brand) to meet a bus that took us down an 18%-grade road to Gudvangen, where we boarded a boat for an unbelievably beautiful cruise through the Nærøyfjord.  We had read that this deep, narrow fjord offers some of the best scenery anywhere in the world, and it certainly delivered.  Two hours later, the boat deposited us in Flåm. The world-famous Flamsbana train then took us by waterfalls and through hand-dug tunnels from sea level to Myrdal at 3,000 feet. One more train brought us back to Bergen. We spent the evening strolling through the fish market and exploring a fortress before getting on the night train to Oslo.

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We arrived in the Norwegian capital before the city really woke up, so for two hours we had the streets to ourselves.  Throughout the day, we saw the obligatory sights, including the modern opera house, a tour of the city hall (where we learned so much we were half expecting to get a diploma before we left), and a walk through a large sculpture park.  By the afternoon, we were all out of granola and PB&J supplies, so Nick K. grabbed what he said was a delicious barbecue-flavored hot dog, suspiciously on sale, from one of the many 7-Elevens in the city.  Shortly after, we caught the train back to Stockholm, concluding another great weekend trip.

 

Adventures in undergraduate astrophysics research