By Lindsay Berkhout (University of Chicago Astronomy and Astrophyics Major)
We started off our second day in New Zealand by travelling to the CDC to receive our cold weather gear and receive the safety briefings. Depending on the weather, our flight to McMurdo station was scheduled for the next day, so we spent the morning preparing our gear for the flight.
Then, it was off to the University of Canterbury to meet some of the IceCube collaborators who work there. The university was fairly empty due to their summer break, but the collaborators were still hard at work, and I got to take a beautiful walk around the campus in the 80 degree weather.
After that, we headed back towards our hotel where we split up and I took a walk around downtown, stopping into “Rutherford’s Den” at the old University of Canterbury buildings, where Ernest Rutherford spent his early university days.
Most of it was blocked off for a Buskers festival, but it was still cool to walk around the buildings (and, of course, the gift shop was open). Then, it was a quick stop at the Canterbury museum before heading for a walk around the botanic gardens to look at some of the native (and non-native) New Zealand flora.
By Suruj Seunarine, Associate Professor of Physics ,UWRF
Today we arrived in Christchurch, New Zealand, the first stop on the way to Antarctica. Lindsay Berkhout (U. Chicago undergraduate) is deploying as well this year. Lindsay was a student in our 2017 REU group at UWRF. We got to Christchurch after a thirteen hour flight from San Francisco to Auckland and then a short one hour flight to Christchurch.
This is a homecoming for me, I lived in Christchurch for about nine years and left just before the big earthquakes hit. Everywhere there are wide open lots where buildings used to be. But there a many new buildings too and though most of my favourite restaurants are no longer around it was still easy to find something to eat. And there’s art and sculpture everywhere.
Tomorrow we go to the CDC to get our extreme cold weather clothing and to have our laptops checked. On Friday, if the weather is good, we will fly out to McMurdo Station in Antarctica.
2017 Summer Astrophysics Research Interns at WIPAC: Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center in Madison. Back row from left: Begad Elmelligy (Normandale/UWRF), Jacob Hanson-Flores(UWRF), Dylan Frikken(UWRF), Mason Austin(Marquette), Julio Estrada(Rio Hondo Community College), Suruj Seunarine (UWRF). Front row from left: Madeleine Hanley (Colorado School of Mines), Grace Zeit (UWRF), Quang Phung (Normandale Community College), Megan Kimbro(Old Dominion)
By Jacob Hanson-Flores: UWRF Undergraduate
Today, June 5th, was the first day of the 2017 Ice Cube Boot Camp here in Madison, WI. We made our departure from River Falls campus mid-day on Sunday, June 4th, and drove straight through (aside from a quick stop at Culvers). We arrived here in Madison around mid-afternoon. This is only my third time here in Madison and for many of the students in our group, it is a first. The weather yesterday was warm and sunny, which only heightened our ever-growing excitement/curiosity in our unfamiliar surroundings. Everyone unloaded and checked into the dorms quickly, then immediately set out to tour the beautiful campus. Dylan and I began our journey on the trail that encompasses the lake directly behind our dorms, and eventually moseying our way down to State Street. There we spent the remainder of the afternoon popping in and out of interesting shops and finished it off at one of the local sports bars where we ate some delicious food and enjoyed the basketball game.
This morning I woke up bright and early with an overwhelming sense of anticipation for the day ahead of me. Prior to arriving I spoke with some of my peers who attended the boot camp, but I was still unsure of what to expect. I made my way over to the WIPAC building with a group of students from Marquette. Walking into the building we were greeted by students and faculty who appeared equally animated for the day. Boot camp began promptly at 9 am with a brief introduction to Ice Cube, followed by a more in-depth overview by Francis Halzen (AKA Neutrino Man). The way that Francis spoke sparked the room with an undeniable feeling of awe and inspiration.
We spent the next hour covering the principles of astrophysical and atmospheric neutrinos that Ice Cube was built upon. We then took a short coffee break and jumped right into working with the Ice Tray framework. Things moved along quickly and within a few short hours we covered everything from viewing simulations of neutrino events and reading data with python. For lunch, some of the group opted to walk around the Capitol building with Dr. Seunarine. In the meantime, I was able to sniff my way to an adjacent street with a handful of food trucks positioned along the sidewalk.
The day was concluded with a talk from Prof. Williams giving us a detailed introduction to the calibration LED ‘flashers’ that are on each IceCube DOM. Her presentation accentuated the unbelievable amount of thought and purpose that went into the construction of the Ice Cube detector. She went into detail about how the flashers are used to test the calibration and response of the DOMs. Moreover, the flashers are even used to study the optical properties of the ice itself. Several summer interns will work with the so-called ‘flasher’ data in their projects.
After making the trip back to campus to drop off our bags we made our way over to the terrace on the lake to unwind with our fellow boot campers after a long day. On our trek back to the dorms we even managed to catch an immaculate display of the sun setting over Lake Mendota. Needless to say, I am excited to soak up as much information as I can throughout the upcoming week and make some new connections along the way.
When I was told this summer that I would have the opportunity to work in Antarctica, there was one small catch. Only Sam and Dr. Madsen would be going to the South Pole, leaving me behind at McMurdo Station on the coast. After finishing up our work at the Cosray building in McMurdo, Sam and Dr. Madsen began to prepare for their journey to the bottom of the world, and I started to volunteer myself for anything needed around the community to keep myself busy. About 30 minutes before they were supposed to go bag-drag (checking bags/weight for the flight), Dr. Madsen told me that I had been added to the manifest, leaving me a half hour to pack for the expedition of a lifetime.
After we had checked in and weighed for the next day’s flight the realization of where we would be going started to set in. Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station is located at the geographic South Pole at an elevation of 9,301 feet above sea level. We were going from sea level to nearly 10,000 feet in just under 3 hours. In order to combat altitude sickness, it was recommended that we take ‘something’ to ease our adjustment.
The next day we hopped on a shuttle to the Willy airfield near McMurdo, and boarded our flight. There was only five passengers including us, so we got to move around freely and enjoy the breathtaking scenery below the plane. Three hours later we landed, and were greeted by a few of the IceCubers who brought us into the station to receive our welcome brief. The South Pole station is an amazing feat of engineering and design. The elevated station looks like something from science fiction, and was designed to be raised since the snow drifts quite heavily there.
The first day at the South Pole it is recommended you take it easy to acclimatize to the sudden change in altitude. We toured the station, enjoyed the great food and played a couple board games. Day two started off much quicker. We toured the IceCube Lab and the South Pole Telescope (a cosmic microwave background observatory). Then in the afternoon I volunteered to assist scientists with the ARA project, a radio wave based neutrino detection array. I helped dig a 7 foot hole to find an instrumentation hole that had been augured 5 years prior.
Physical labor is no small task at the South Pole between the altitude, cold, wind and blowing snow. It was much slower work than it would be anywhere else. While I was busy undoing 5 years of Antarctica’s drifting snow, Dr. Madsen and Sam started their work collecting a sample of the insulating foam surrounding the South Pole neutron monitors deployed outside on an elevated platform.
Our last morning at the pole started at 3 am to join an outreach web cast with some of the IceCubers and Kate Miller, a high school physics teacher here with the PolarTREC program. She also blogged and posted videos about her trip. After the web-cast and a much needed nap, Sam and I went back out into the frozen wasteland to assist the ARA scientists once again. After we found two of the holes the day prior, we were tasked with deploying a radio transmitter and receiver in order to calibrate their sensors.
Our time at the South Pole was short. We only had about 48 hours due to our time constraints for redeploying back to the USA. The uncooperative weather this season caused a lot of flight cancellations and delays to the pole. So we played it safe and got on the first flight back to McMurdo on Friday. It was a good thing we did, because the next three scheduled flights were canceled. Even though we had a short time, the South Pole was an amazing experience.
By Samantha, Dylan and Dr. Madsen – UWRF Undergraduates
As mentioned before, we have seen very little wildlife here in Antarctica. All wildlife in Antarctica is protected by the Antarctic Treaty and the Antarctic Conservation Act, making it illegal to disturb wildlife and the ecosystems. The most exciting wildlife “interactions” we get are run-ins with Skua. Skua are large brown birds that are slightly aggressive when searching for food. Because of the treaty, no one is allowed to feed the birds or bother them in any way. Even if one happens to land on the roof of a vehicle. This happened to one of the shuttle vans, and no one could do anything until it moved on its own. This particular Skua must have found comfort in the roof of the van, as he stayed such a long time that the driver got a new vehicle to complete her run. Apparently it happens once or twice a season.
Other than Skua, we have seen plenty of seals, specifically Weddell seals. They don’t really do much. They sun bathe, and rarely move. We have gotten so close to these seals, that we could hear them snoring!
Sometimes it is possible to see penguins near McMurdo, but this year the sea ice went out much farther than in the recent past, so the already small chance of seeing an Adélie penguin dropped significantly. We have not seen any penguins so far. Other types of seals, and whales do come near the station on occasion, but not that we have seen.
Another highly protected area is the Discovery Hut. This historic building was built in 1902 to be a storage place and a rendezvous point for Scott’s expedition to the South Pole. From the Discovery Hut, the South Pole is approximately 850 miles.
Another highly protected area is the Discovery Hut. This historic building was built in 1902 to be a storage place and a rendezvous point for Scott’s expedition to the South Pole. From the Discovery Hut, the South Pole is approximately 850 miles. Imagine walking in extreme cold weather for months without the gear we have today. Elaine Hood, the communications specialist of the Antarctic Support Contract, gave us a tour of the building. It was absolutely stunning to see the building in near pristine condition. Some of the explorers left seal carcasses in and just outside the hut, and yes, these have been left exactly as they were too.
About ten years later, in a mission by Ernest Shackleton, 5 men were trapped in the hut for 5 months. It was sobering to be standing in the same place that these men had struggled to survive. Visiting the hut was a humbling experience, and is one of my favorite parts of our adventure so far.
There are many exciting thing to do in the community, and we have been fortunate enough to have witnessed some of these events. One of the goofy events was the 1st Annual Antarctic Applesauce Chugging World Series. It is exactly what it sound like. People volunteered to chug applesauce in hopes of winning an assortment of different prizes. These community events, or odd contests, really make the community special. It is a blast to watch, and it is a great opportunity to try new things.
The biggest events of the week was the Beard Contest and Mustache Roulette. The Beard Contest was broken up into different categories, including Big and Bushy (which is exactly what it sounds like), Free-style (curls, loops, glitter and ornaments), College Beard (the thin, not quite complete beards), Ginger Beard (which is exactly what it sounds like), and the Fake Beard (where anyone can be creative and make their own). The contest also featured live beard-themed music. Dylan competed in the Ginger Beard category, and got 2nd place!
The following night was Mustache Roulette. It is a charity event supporting Doctors Without Boarders, where people can place bids on the opportunity to shave someone’s beard into whatever shape they would like. It was super fun! One regular here at McMurdo, Dale, has had his mustache for over 47 years! He offered to donate his glorious mustache for $3,000 in donations. The goal was reached and Dale did indeed part with his mustache.
Astrophysics is not the only work being done at McMurdo. There are many different projects happening during the summer season including biology, microbiology, geology, glaciology, paleontology, atmospherical science, volcanology, chemistry, and a artist and writer program and a teaching program. Every week, different people have the opportuinty to give a talk about their project. Since coming here, we have listened to many wonderful lectures. The first being Dr. Neil Shubin, a leader in the paleontology community most well known for his work with finding the connection between aquatic animals and land animals. We then listened to a talk by Maris Wicks, a New York Times Bestselling illustrator and author who aims her graphic novels towards science outreach. The next talk we sat in on was by Dr. Chu, who works with gravity waves in the upper atmosphere. Last night we heard our very own Dr. Madsen give a talk about cosmic messengers, including cosmic rays and neutrinos, and how we detect these astrophysical particles. People from all backgrounds attend these talks, science experience or not, and it is really amazing to see the community support. Everyone here is excited to learn something new, and is not afraid to step outside their comfort zone. It truly is wonderful to see.
By Dylan Frikken and Samantha Pedek – UWRF Physics Undergraduates.
Work has officially begun on disassembling the neutron monitors in the Cosray building at McMurdo. There are Two neutron monitor sets here that need to be packaged up, new enclosures built and eventually shipped off for Jang Bogo, a South Korean station here in
Antarctica. Each set has six neutron monitors encased in ten tons of lead each and their enclosures. After two days of hard work we have taken one set down and staged it for packaging. Also, we have nearly completed the new enclosure for this set, so we are doing pretty well for time.
Today we a lso prepped for the Cosray open house event. The historic Cosray building is going to be removed from McMurdo after our work here, so the community was given one last chance to come and visit. We spent a good amount of the day cleaning and organizing
Cosray is like a time machine straight back into the old days of scientific research. There are all kinds of vintage equipment and instruments, and it really could be a museum itself. Before computing came onto the scene, analog recording systems and good old fashioned paper ruled the world of science. The data from the detectors used to be recorded on ticker tape, while the pressure, temperature and wind speed were all recorded with devices similar to a seismometer.
One really interesting product of recording data using a ticker tape is that a massive amount of chad – the holes punched from the ticker tape.
The Cosray open house was really successful. A good chunk of the community came, and Sam and I got to explain how the neutron monitors work and why they are important to science, and we fielded a lot of interesting questions.